Main Article Content


Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is a non-invasive modality used to assess a person's exercise capacity. An assessment of the gas exchange mechanism that occurs in the breath-to-breath stage of respiration will describe gas exchange at the cellular level. Monitoring of gas exchange is a parameter in assessing abnormalities that cause disruption of aerobic metabolic processes in the body. These parameters in CPET assist clinicians in sorting and assessing the factors that cause dyspnea or fatigue during activity, whether disorders on the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, or muskuloskeletal side. In addition, CPET is also a modality in determining the prognosis and feasibility of heart transplantation in clients with heart failure. Peak VO2 assessment 14 mL/kg/min gave a better picture of cumulative survival in heart failure patients, and O2 pulse 10 mL/beat showed better event-free survival.

Article Details


PERKI. Pedoman Uji Latih Jantung: Prosedur dan Interpretasi. Perki 53 (2016).
2. Milani RV, Lavie CJ, Mehra MR, Ventura HO. Understanding the basics of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006;81(12):1603-1611. doi:10.4065/81.12.1603
3. Arena R, Myers J, Williams MA, et al. Assessment of functional capacity in clinical and research settings: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Committee on Exercise, Rehabilitation, and Prevention of the Council on Clinical Cardiology and the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing. Circulation. 2007;116(3):329-343. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.184461
4. Taylor C, Nichols S, Ingle L. A clinician's guide to cardiopulmonary exercise testing 1: an introduction. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2015;76(4):192-195. doi:10.12968/hmed.2015.76.4.192
5. Toma N, Bicescu G, Enache R, et al. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in differential diagnosis of dyspnea. Maedica (Bucur). 2010;5(3):214-218.
6. Balady GJ, Arena R, Sietsema K, et al. Clinician's Guide to cardiopulmonary exercise testing in adults: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2010;122(2):191-225. doi:10.1161/CIR.0b013e3181e52e69
7. Albouaini K, Egred M, Alahmar A, et al. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and its application. Postgrad Med J. 2007;83(985):675-682. doi:10.1136/hrt.2007.121558
8. Gibbons RJ, Balady GJ, Bricker JT, et al. ACC/AHA 2002 guideline update for exercise testing: summary article: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Update the 1997 Exercise Testing Guidelines). Circulation. 2002;106(14):1883-1892. doi:10.1161/01.cir.0000034670.06526.15
9. Kowlgi, G. & Hsu, J. J. Exercise Physiology for the Sports Cardiology Fellow. 2021;1–11 (2021).
10. Series, I. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET ). 2020:201.
11. Dean, A. dkk. ACSM’s Guideline Exercise Testing and Prescription 10th Edition. (Wolters Kluwer, 2016).
12. Weisman, I. M. dkk. American Thoracic Society / American College of Chest Physicians ATS / ACCP Statement on Cardiopulmonary. 2003:167:211–277.
13. Victor F. Froelicher, Jonathan Myers. Exercise and the Heart. Fifth Edition. (Pioli SF, ed.). Elsevier Inc; 2006.
14. Nichols S, Taylor C, Ingle L. A clinician's guide to cardiopulmonary exercise testing 2: test interpretation. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2015;76(5):281-289. doi:10.12968/hmed.2015.76.5.281.
15. Maron BA, Cockrill BA, Waxman AB, et al. The invasive cardiopulmonary exercise test. Circulation. 2013;127(10):1157-1164. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.104463.
16. Koch B, Schäper C, Ittermann T, et al. Reference values for cardiopulmonary exercise testing in healthy volunteers: the SHIP study. Eur Respir J. 2009;33(2):389-397. doi:10.1183/09031936.00074208
17. Guazzi M, Arena R, Halle M, et al. 2016 Focused Update: Clinical Recommendations for Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Data Assessment in Specific Patient Populations. Circulation. 2016;133(24):e694-e711. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000406
18. Husain K, Ansari RA, Ferder L. Alcohol-induced hypertension: Mechanism and prevention. World J Cardiol. 2014;6(5):245-252. doi:10.4330/wjc.v6.i5.245
19. Corrà U, Mezzani A, Bosimini E, et al. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and prognosis in chronic heart failure: a prognosticating algorithm for the individual patient. Chest. 2004;126(3):942-950. doi:10.1378/chest.126.3.942
20. Cohn JN, Johnson G, Ziesche S, et al. A comparison of enalapril with hydralazine-isosorbide dinitrate in the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1991;325(5):303-310. doi:10.1056/NEJM199108013250502